I think this is a topic many of us seldom think about so here are some of my thoughts on the subject.
Eve sinned, but it is Adam’s sin that is preeminent here. Let me see if I can show why this is so.
In Gen. 2:15 God places Adam in the garden to keep it. The word keep used here is “shamar.” According to Strong's Concordance this word means “to keep, guard, keep watch and ward, protect, save life.” Adam’s task in the garden was more than simply that of a grounds keeper. He was also a guard, because there was an enemy on the loose (Satan). Eve did not receive this duty, Adam did. Also Adam was told to not eat of the tree of life, before Eve was created. (Note: We find the same word “shamar” is used in Gen 3:15 to describe the cherubim sent to guard the tree of life.)
Next Eve was created as Adam’s “helper suitable”. He was, from the beginning, head over her and responsible for her (he has to protect her as well). In Gen. 3:6 we are told that after Eve had eaten the forbidden fruit that “she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate.” Adam was there with his wife. He should have protected her, but instead he allowed her to be tempted. Remember Paul tells us that Eve was deceived when she partook; This is not true of Adam, he simply disobeyed God (1 Tim 2:14).
Because of all this, the Scriptures rightly give Adam credit for the fall into sin and not Eve. Nothing was cursed because of Eve’s sin, but the whole of creation is cursed because of Adam’s sin (Gen. 3:17-19; Rom. 5:17).
The above may seem like hair splitting but, Adam’s headship and culpability in this matter are both biblically and theologically important, especially when we look into the different roles that God has given to husbands and wives.
Soli Deo Gloria,